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Allan Greenspan is the former director of the Federal Reserve; â€œITâ€ is the giant financial boondoggle that almost sent the globe into another Great Depression.
Greenspan admitted that the â€œmodelâ€ he was trusting was mistaken. The model in which he had placed his trust is the utilitarian model also known as the consequentialist normative theory that, according to Fieser, means that â€œcorrect moral conduct is determined solely by a cost-benefit analysis of an actionâ€™s consequencesâ€. Fieser, J. Ethics: Consequentialist Theories--Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy
SGCS (Second Generation Cognitive Science) informs us that the â€œutilitarian person, for whom rationality is economic rationalityâ€”the maximization of utilityâ€”does not exist. Real human beings are not, for the most part, in conscious control ofâ€”or even consciously aware ofâ€”their reasoning.â€
In the 1970s a new body of empirical research began to introduce findings that questioned the traditional Anglo-American cognitive paradigm of AI (Artificial Intelligence), i.e. symbol manipulation.
This research indicates that the neurological structures associated with sensorimotor activity are mapped directly to the higher cortical brain structures to form the foundation for subjective conceptualization in the human brain. In other words, our abstract ideas are constructed with copies of sensorimotor neurological structures as a foundation. â€œIt is the rule of thumb among cognitive scientists that unconscious thought is 95 percent of all thoughtâ€”and that may be a serious underestimate.â€
Categorization, the first level of abstraction from â€œRealityâ€ is our first level of conceptualization and thus of knowing. Seeing is a process that includes categorization, we see something as an interaction between the seer and what is seen. â€œSeeing typically involves categorization.â€
Our categories are what we consider to be real in the world: tree, rock, animalâ€¦Our concepts are what we use to structure our reasoning about these categories. Concepts are neural structures that are the fundamental means by which we reason about categories.
Human categories, the stuff of experience, are reasoned about in many different ways. These differing ways of reasoning, these different conceptualizations, are called prototypes and represent the second level of conceptualization
Typical-case prototype conceptualization modes are â€œused in drawing inferences about category members in the absence of any special contextual information. Ideal-case prototypes allow us to evaluate category members relative to some conceptual standardâ€¦Social stereotypes are used to make snap judgmentsâ€¦Salient exemplars (well-known examples) are used for making probability judgmentsâ€¦Reasoning with prototypes is, indeed, so common that it is inconceivable that we could function for long without them.â€
When we conceptualize categories in this fashion we often envision them using spatial metaphors. Spatial relation metaphors form the heart of our ability to perceive, conceive, and to move about in space. We unconsciously form spatial relation contexts for entities: â€˜inâ€™, â€˜onâ€™, â€˜aboutâ€™, â€˜across fromâ€™ some other entity are common relationships that make it possible for us to function in our normal manner.
When we perceive a black cat and do not wish to cross its path our imagination conceives container shapes such that we do not penetrate the container space occupied by the cat at some time in its journey. We function in space and the container schema is a normal means we have for reasoning about action in space. Such imaginings are not conscious but most of our perception and conception is an automatic unconscious force for functioning in the world.
Our manner of using language to explain experience provides us with an insight into our cognitive structuring process. Perceptual cues are mapped onto cognitive spaces wherein a representation of the experience is structured onto our spatial-relation contour. There is no direct connection between perception and language.
The claim of cognitive science is â€œthat the very properties of concepts are created as a result of the way the brain and the body are structured and the way they function in interpersonal relations and in the physical world.â€
Quotes from Philosophy in the Flesh by Lakoff and Johnson